Sep 30, 2013

Dark Wisdom: A Jewish Comment on the Conclusion of Breaking Bad

Dark Wisdom: A Jewish Comment on the Conclusion of Breaking Bad

(c) Rabbi Menachem Creditor
Truth and beauty accompanied every devastating turn in the journey that was Breaking Bad. Perhaps even wisdom. As a religious devotee of Vince Gilligan's masterful narrative, I will be processing its conclusion this past week for some time.
What follows is one rabbi's commentary on a television show that was at once artful expression and transformative experience, pop culture and philisophy. We could do much worse than learn lessons of intention, truth and power by treading lightly through the dark wisdom of Breaking Bad.
[Spoiler alert!!]
Breaking Bad was an excrutiating show to watch. It was hard to breathe. But the pain of having its narrative flow interrupted by commercials was even worse. Thanks to Netflix and iTunes, I binge-watched my way through the entire series this past summer, and watched only the finale this pat Sunday "live." My attunedness to the characters' emotions, to the rich cinematography, to the terrible ripples of every action and word, was disrupted by distraction. The Talmud instructs that "one who connects liberation to prayer brings redemption," a rhetorical way of making sure certain things are experienced in sequence and without interruption, so that engaged participants see that one intense moment needs and feeds off another, that distractedness gets in the way of flow. The very way in which we experience culture is a fascinating indicator of our ability to pay attention, to feel connected with just one thing. Jewish tradition calls this flow "kavannah," or intention. It's hard to achieve, but once you have experienced it, anything less feels like, ...well, less.
Walter White, the un-hero of the Breaking Bad saga, is a rationalist so skilled that, until the very last moments of the six-year journey, he even convinces himself that his evil actions are morally justifiable as each terrible one is taken, painstakingly mythologized as necessary for his family's welfare. White is compelled over and over to lie, cheat, murder, and hurt. But, as Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel wrote, "an act is not good because we feel obligated to do it; it is rather that we feel obliged to do it because it is good." Only at the very end does White acknowledge was was painfully true to every other character (and every viewer), which the writers had him say so simply: "I did it for me. I liked it. I was good at it. And I was really -- I was alive." This acknowledgement, and White's traumatized wife's (and our own) silent shock at its sudden blinding honesty, is one of the few lingering hints of redemption in a narrative arc that crossed countless moral lines. It is only through verbally naming our sins in the presence those we have wronged, Jewish tradition teaches, that we might reach forgiveness.
In Joan Didion's shocking The Year of Magical Thinking she explains her need to be alone after the sudden death of her husband: "I myself was in no way prepared to accept this news as final: there was a level on which I believed that what had happened remained reversible. That is why I needed to be alone." This magical thinking leads to what playright Henrik Ibsen called "vital lies," defined by Daniel Goleman as "soothing mistruths people let themselves believe rather than face the more distrurbing realites beneath." In this light, perhaps the most devastating moment of Breaking Bad occurs when White, exiled, dying from his cancer, reaches out in desperation to his son, grasping at one last chance to fulfill his delusional intention to support his family with ill-gotten financial gain. His son, finally exposed to the brutal consequences of his father's choices, just as brutally removes the illusion of righteousness from his father's eyes, breaking a myth of goodness masterfully woven and endured for far too long. The blood on White's money is born from sin, a contamination irreversible even by the most skillfully woven lies. If White had only remained alone in exile, he could have gone on believing the lies. But we aren't made for such aloneness. He never wanted to be alone, and so he is forced to reconcile his internal illusory self with the Walter White others know. It's a terrible confrontation, but it's also not good, we are told by the Torah, for a person to be alone.
Power has been dedfined by historian Jon Meacham as "the ability to bend the world to one's will, the remaking of reality in one's own image." This is true goal of Walter White's work. He isn't in the money business, or the drug business, but in "the empire business." A Jewish legend of another empire-builder comes to mind:
After Hadrian, emporer of Rome, conquered the world, he desired to be declared God. Troubled after failing to become God, his wife told him, 'You can become God, for you are a great and mighty king, and everything is in your power. I suggest one thing: return God's deposit and you will become God.' Hadrian asked, 'What deposit?' His wifeanswered, 'Your soul.' When Hadrian replied that he was unable, his wife quoted the verse 'no person has authority over the day of death (Ecc. 8:8)' and told him 'in truth, you are a man, not God.'
In an early episode of Breaking Bad, Walter White chooses the street name 'Heisenberg,' adopting his new namesake's principle of uncertainty. Is he good or bad, teacher or a criminal, avenging savior or angel of death? From the very beginning of the story, White has been dying and living, lying and, in his own way, tender and loving. Whereas White isn't certain his dark choices will have been for nothing, we viewers are quite sure: his brilliant creators have given us much to ponder.

Sep 28, 2013

announcing the publication of "A Manifesto for the Future: The ShefaNetwork Archive Conservative/Masorti Judaism Dreaming from Within"

announcing the publication of

A Manifesto for the Future: The ShefaNetwork Archive
Conservative/Masorti Judaism Dreaming from Within
Edited by Rabbi Menachem Creditor


(See Table of Contents Below)

This collection has been nine years in the making and is an archive of overflowing Jewish passion. There future of Conservative/Masorti Judaism depends on voices like those shared in this book, which was created to fulfill the mission of ShefaNetwork: to bring together dreamers from within the Conservative/Masorti Movement and to give their dreams an audible voice. ShefaNetwork was born in December of 2004 to create a virtual community of professional and lay activists in the Conservative/Masorti movement and a place to discuss the movement's direction and ways of strengthening Conservative Judaism for the future. Perhaps one of the greatest strengths of the Shefa enterprise is the way it has avoided strict boundaries between the intellectual and the practical. Shefa has provided a very fruitful engagement between intellectuals and practitioners, many of whom should be described as falling in both categories. This is as it should be, because a religious movement needs both a coherent vision with philosophical rigor and historical perspective, and the practical wisdom to enact this vision. Usually, these two tasks are not done well by the same people, but that too is a bias that leads us to divide the world into "theorists" and "practitioners," as if the two are from different planets. If the Conservative movement is going to succeed in creating spiritual communities in its schools, synagogues and camps, it will have to bring together the theological visions of the movement's intellectual lights with the practical wisdom of professionals and lay people. The most important accomplishment of ShefaNetwork may be that it has begun a conversation that includes all of these essential voices.

Contents

1             Introduction, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

From ShefaJournal 5766: Definitions

15           Foreword, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

17    Editors’ Introduction, Sara Shapiro-Plevan and Rabbi William Plevan

33    The Challenge Facing the Conservative Movement, Rabbi Judith Hauptman

37    Between the Holy and the Sacred: Conservative Judaism’s Halachah Controversy, Rabbi Ira F. Stone

46    Fostering Holiness and Spirituality in a Solomon Schechter Day School, Jane Taubenfeld Cohen

52    Finding Spiritual Jewish Prayer, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

55           Traditional and Egalitarian, Emily Fishman

62    Revitalizing the Conservative Synagogue, Fran Gordon

71    A Manifesto for the Future: Drop ‘Conservative’ Label to Tap True Meaning and Reach the Faithful, Rabbi David Wolpe

81           To My Rabbis and Teachers, Jonathan Lopatin

89           On Being a Conservative Jew, Rose Shoshana Wolok

91     Halachah and the Conservative Movement, Aaron Weininger

95    Ethically Driven Halachah: The Future of the Conservative Movement, Rabbi Judith Hauptman

100  The Struggle for Self-Definition in Conservative Judaism, Rabbi Robert Gordis

123  Maintaining the Balance: Achieving the Dream, Nicole Guzik

From ShefaJournal 5768.1: Instrumental Music on Shabbat and Chag

131  Editor’s Introduction, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

133-168  A conversation including Robert L. Smith, Dahlia Schwartz, Glenn Tamir, Rebecca Boggs, Rabbi David Kay, Craig Taubman, Rabbi Barry Leff, Karen Silberman, Rabbi Menachem Creditor, Fran Gordon, and Rabbi Neal Loevenger (January through May 2008)

169  Conservative Judaism and Social Justice, Rabbi Bill Plevan

169  Merge the Movements?, Rabbi David Kay

From ShefaNetwork Journal 5768.2: Kashrut, Halachah, and Conservative Jews

177  Editor’s Introduction, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

179  The Invitation from Rabbi Barry Leff

181-250  A conversation including Zack Berger, Fred Passman, R.L. Smith, Larry Lenhoff, Steve, Rabbi Barry Leff, Avi Hein, Rabbi Menachem Creditor, Fran Gordon, Rabbi Jim Rogozen, Rabbi Joshua Heller, Rabbi Bill Plevan, Rebecca Boggs, Anne Pettet, Rabbi David Bockman, Ilan Glazer, Rabbi David Siff, Gella Solomon, Rabbi Len Sharzer, Rabbi David Kay, Rabbi Andy Sacks, and Rabbi Dr. Ilana Rosansky (Messages 2109‐2164 on the Shefa listserv)

251  A Closing Reflection on the Conversation with Rabbi Leff, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

From ShefaNetwork Journal 5769.1: USCJ (Vol 1)

256  Editor’s Introduction, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

257-311 A conversation including Zack Frankel, Steven Katz, Rabbi David Kay, Fred Passman, Jonathan Loring, Rabbi Bill Plevan, Anne Pettit, Ira Fink, Rabbi  Menachem Creditor, Steven Katz, Nina Kretzmer, Matt Shapiro, Shoshana Michael-Zucker, Rabbi Leonard Gordon, Marc Stober, and Dahlia Schwartz (selected posts between February 17 and February 22, 2009)

From ShefaNetwork Journal 5769.2: USCJ (Vol 2)

313  Editor’s Introduction, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

315  Toward a new vision for the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, Rabbi Neil A. Tow

317  Conservative Judaism's Future, Karla Worell

321  To What do We Aspire? Dr. Jonathan Woocher

324  Conservative Judaism: Valued and Validated, Rabbi David Kay

327  Moving Forward, Rabbi Jason Miller

329  What is Success? Fred Passman

330  No Plant is Fed from the Top, Paul Levine

331 The Chance to Build a Jewish Organization
from the Ground Up, Rabbi Neal Joseph Loevinger

From ShefaNetwork Journal 5770.1: The Relationship Between Conservative Judaism and the Conservative Movement

335        Editor’s Note, Nina S. Kretzmer

339        Shmirat HaGuf, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

Part IThe Shmirat HaGuf Discussion

341              It Begins with the Local Community, Fred Passman
346              Body or Method, Rabbi David Bockman
348              Response to Rabbi Bockman, Fred Passman
350              Response to Fred Passman, Steven Katz
352              The Compelling Idea, Dr. Jonathan S. Woocher
355              Response to Dr. Woocher, Fred Passman

Part IIAn Issue of Past, An Issue of Present: Responses to Previous ShefaJournals

357  Rabbi Nicole Guzik, Response by Rabbi Neil Gillman
359  Rabbi Jim Rogozen, Larry Lenhoff, Response by Rabbi Randall J. Konigsburg
366  Jacob B. Ukeles, Responses by Paul Levine & (p. 370) Jonah Rank
377  Paul Levine, Response by Fred Passman

ShefaJournal 5770.2: Tech-Tonic” is available online at tinyurl.com/shefatechtonic

From ShefaJournal 5770.3: Why Must Masorti/Conservative Judaism Thrive?

383        Editor’s Note, Rabbi Menachem Creditor
385        Response 1: Nina S. Kretzmer
386        Response 2: Rabbi Neil Tow
387        Response 3: Karla Worrell


From ShefaJournal 5771.1: HaYom uMachar: Visions of the Conservative/ Masorti Movement in North America

391        Editor’s Note, Rabbi Menachem Creditor

395        Bring Sacred Back, Ilan Glazer

398        Response to Ilan Glazer, Fred Passman

401 Public Letter to the ShefaNetwork and members of the Hayom Coalition, Nina S. Kretzmer

404  Strategic Plan Feedback for College Students and Young Adults, Rabbi Daniel Greyber

409        Suggested Responses Rabbi David Kay

413  Visioning Future Success: The Next Iteration of a Central Organization for Conservative Judaism and Kehillot, Rabbi Loren Sykes

426  A 3-Part Jewschool Post : "The USCJ Strategic Plan", by  “ImproveUSCJ”

452  My Dream, Gabriel Nachman Seed

458  Learning for the Future, Nina S. Kretzmer

462  Towards a New Model of Leadership for College Kehillot, and the Entire Movement, Sandy Johnston

473  Input on the USCJ's Strategic Plan, Judy Gerstenblith (University of Maryland, College Park)

485        About ShefaNetwork

Sep 25, 2013

SheminiAtzeret: The world is a Sukkah in which no moment is to be lived in vain. Every person is another's gateway to heaven. So stay open.

From Rabbi Creditor: Shemini Atzeret, Simchat Torah, & More!



from Molly Shapiro, Director of Youth Community and Connection!
There will be childcare provided for ages 0-5 in the SBY room from 10-1 on Thursday & Friday (with Mika Aloni), and from 10-2 on Shabbat with Doreen (our usual childcare professional).
Thursday, September 26
Shmini Atzeret/Erev Simchat Torah
9:30 am Services (Shmini Atzeret &  Yizkor)
6:15 pm Ma'ariv, Simchat Torah & Hakafot - come dance with the Torah!!!
 
Friday, September 27: Simchat Torah Day
9:30 am Shacharit, Simchat Torah & Hakafot
 
Saturday, September 28
Shabbat Breisheet
9:00 am Torah Study
9:30 am Shabbat Service 
11:00 am Shabbat B'Yachad Program: welcomes all families with children under 5-years-old!
12:30 pm Kiddush is sponsored by Angela Butts and Yotam Levine, in honor of their aufruf. Mazal Tov!
Join Our Mailing List
a note from Rabbi Creditor: 
Shemini Atzeret, Simchat Torah, and More!
 21 Tishrei, 5774
September 25, 2013

 

Dear Chevreh,

During Hoshana Rabbah davening in the Sukkah this morning, the grown-ups were treated to the CNS Preschool children coming for a visit. We were in the middle of Hallel when the kids arrived, and the words we sang looking at their shining faces were "we will bless God, our little ones and our big ones." How holy that moment was!
 
Tradition says that tomorrow, Shemini Atzeret, is the moment when the Heavenly gates close. But I believe the truth is that it isn't about a date on the calendar. These days remind us that each of us can be a gateway to Heaven, to the world as it should be. These gates, our internal portals to the Divine, can always be open. It's a choice we are called to make each day. Let's never become closed. That will bring our world closer and closer to whatever we mean when we say "heaven."

When our Torahs dance with us Thursday Evening, we dance back with passion and joy. Children and grown-ups, little ones and big ones - we all get to sing and dance. Heaven on earth. Come and share the joy. See you at shul!
NSLogo  
Chag Sameach!
Rabbi Creditor

-------------------
Rabbi Menachem Creditor


Sep 24, 2013

Please join me at the Berkeley Ceasefire Walk Against Violence!

Dear Chevreh, 

Please join me at the Berkeley Ceasefire Walk Against Violence! 
Thursday, Oct. 03, 2013, 6:30pm (orientation), 7pm (walk begins)  

Let's stand together, walk, and pray - and save lives. Announcing the Berkeley Ceasefire Walk Against Violence!  We'll meet at Good Shepherd Episcopal CHurch (1823 9th St) Berkeley, 94710.  For more info, contact Reverend Este Gardner Cantor at 510-665-5821.

Rabbi Creditor


Sep 22, 2013

from Gabby Giffords & Mark Kelly: Tell Congress - Revisit gun violence legislation

 

As members of the Navy family, we continue to hold the victims of Monday's mass shooting at the Navy Yard in our thoughts and prayers. 

We've been there, and know that nothing will bring solace to the families who lost loved ones that day.

It is our hope that as the hours and days pass, Americans and the elected officials who represent them match their anger and sadness with a renewed commitment to ensuring tragedies like this one never happen again.

That's why we wrote a letter to Congress asking them to come together in the wake of this latest tragedy, and to revisit legislation like expanded background checks that will keep our communities safer. Add your name to our letter today.

http://action.americansforresponsiblesolutions.org/letter

Responsible gun owners should feel outraged when criminals and the dangerously mentally ill can get their hands on guns and use them to harm children and families.

While Congress may be divided on how to stop this problem, Americans simply are not.

It's time for them to act.

All the best,

Gabby Giffords & Mark Kelly
Americans for Responsible Solutions






Paid for by Americans for Responsible Solutions PAC; not authorized by any candidate or candidate's committee.


Just gotta say: 3 days #unplugged does a soul good. May this week get better for everyone everywhere. #shavuahtov

Sep 17, 2013

A Sukkot Drash by Rabbi Creditor in partnership with American Jewish World Service


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A Sukkot Drash by Rabbi Creditor
in partnership with American Jewish World Service 
& Netivot Shalom's ARC Initiative

Sukkot 2013/5774: Ushpizin & the World
Rabbi Menachem Creditor 

http://ajws.org/what_we_do/education/publications/chag_vchesed/5774/cc_sukkot_5774.pdf 

 

rabbi creditor
What is it about the holiday of Sukkot that makes it so powerful? Tradition teaches that the energy of Sukkot is so intense, so visceral and delightful, that seven mythic figures leave the Garden of Eden to join in the light of our earthly sukkot (temporary shelters). But why? What is it about the sukkah that compels even those who have tasted Paradise? 

These spirit guests, known as the Ushpizin, are invited each night into our sukkot. Groupings ofUshpizin vary by community, and include biblical prophetess, revered sages and modern heroes, invoked in turn each night of Sukkot. Jewish mystical tradition suggests that each guest also serves as a reminder of an action through which the brokenness of our world is repaired. 
 

Ironically, the Ushpizin and their message of an aching world typically function as spiritual enhancements during the physical experience of plenty. Many of us live lives far removed from direct contact with those truly in need of shelter. The week we spend dwelling in the sukkah, enjoying bountiful and joyful meals, does little to help us identify with their experience. The temporary walls and roof of our sukkot are, paradoxically and luxuriously, positioned near enough to our permanent home to facilitate the smooth flow of good food and sweet guests we are blessed to share during the holiday. We'd understand better the sacred urgency of the sukkah if we had nothing else. 

I experienced the urgency of Sukkot just over one year ago when I participated in an AJWS Rabbinic Delegation to Ghana, West Africa. We went to support and learn about Challenging Heights, a child-centered organization dedicated to promoting children's rights to education and freedom from forced labor, in order to end child poverty. Since that journey, neither Jewish ritual moments nor interpersonal encounters have been the same. One experience stands out, and has changed Sukkot (and everything else) for me. 

One day, a circle of a few rabbis and children took turns telling each other stories. During one story, the girl on my right, Gladys, rested her head on my arm, obviously glad for human contact, something we were told would likely occur, as every experience of affirmation was part of the healing process for these children saved from slavery. I truly can't remember the stories we were telling, but I can feel the warmth of Gladys' head on my arm right now. 

And then Gladys looked at me and asked if I had eaten. I told her I would eat later. She nodded, and said, "I hope you eat tomorrow, too." I nodded, accepting her blessing, wishing it back to her a million fold. 

My teacher Gladys changed me profoundly, giving me new eyes through which to see as a Global Jewish citizen. She transformed my Jewish life, by blessing me to realize that every ounce of strength we put into building our joyous, temporary structures must, in effect, be a sensitizing training for the higher purpose of building a world in which everyone eats tomorrow. Gladys has become my precious Sukkot spirit guest, my Ushpiza, whose message I commit to amplify until it is, one day soon, unnecessary in our world. 

Discussing the Ushpizin, the mystical text, the Zohar teaches:

One must also gladden the poor, and the portion that would otherwise have been set aside for these Ushpizin guests should go to the poor. For if a person sits in the shadow of faith and invites those guests and does not give their portion to the poor, they all remain distant from him. ...The first of everything must be for one's guests. If one gladdens guests and satisfies them, God rejoices over him. (Zohar, Emor 103a)


So what makes Sukkot so powerful that it compels the attention of heaven and earth? The answer can be discovered within the wisdom of the Ushpizin. The force of the Ushpizin custom, infusing our present with mythic possibility, invites us to consider internalizing spiritual values each day, transforming the sukkah into a safe space for sacred justice and radical welcome, for intentional encounter and deep feelings. In short, the Ushpizin teaches that a sukkah is, after all, an ancient microcosm of the world as it could be, as it must become-a universal shelter of peace.



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AJWS Chag v'Chesed: Sukkot


 

Chag v'Chesed: Holiday Dvar Tzedek

Sukkot 5774
By Rabbi Menachem Creditor

View a printable version
Subscribe to this publication
For more Sukkot resources, visit our website and On1Foot.

What is it about the holiday of Sukkot that makes it so powerful? Tradition teaches that the energy of Sukkot is so intense, so visceral and delightful, that seven mythic figures leave the Garden of Eden to join in the light of our earthly sukkot (temporary shelters). But why? What is it about the sukkah that compels even those who have tasted Paradise?

These spirit guests, known as the Ushpizin, are invited each night into our sukkot. Groupings of Ushpizin vary by community, and include biblical prophetess, revered sages and modern heroes, invoked in turn each night of Sukkot. Jewish mystical tradition suggests that each guest also serves as a reminder of an action through which the brokenness of our world is repaired.

Ironically, the Ushpizin and their message of an aching world typically function as spiritual enhancements during the physical experience of plenty. Many of us live lives far removed from direct contact with those truly in need of shelter. The week we spend dwelling in the sukkah, enjoying bountiful and joyful meals, does little to help us identify with their experience. The temporary walls and roof of our sukkot are, paradoxically and luxuriously, positioned near enough to our permanent home to facilitate the smooth flow of good food and sweet guests we are blessed to share during the holiday. We'd understand better the sacred urgency of the sukkah if we had nothing else.

I experienced the urgency of Sukkot just over one year ago when I participated in an AJWS Rabbinic Delegation to Ghana, West Africa. We went to support and learn about Challenging Heights, a child-centered organization dedicated to promoting children's rights to education and freedom from forced labor, in order to end child poverty. Since that journey, neither Jewish ritual moments nor interpersonal encounters have been the same. One experience stands out, and has changed Sukkot (and everything else) for me.

One day, a circle of a few rabbis and children took turns telling each other stories. During one story, the girl on my right, Gladys, rested her head on my arm, obviously glad for human contact, something we were told would likely occur, as every experience of affirmation was part of the healing process for these children saved from slavery. I truly can't remember the stories we were telling, but I can feel the warmth of Gladys' head on my arm right now.

And then Gladys looked at me and asked if I had eaten. I told her I would eat later. She nodded, and said, "I hope you eat tomorrow, too." I nodded, accepting her blessing, wishing it back to her a million fold.

My teacher Gladys changed me profoundly, giving me new eyes through which to see as a Global Jewish citizen. She transformed my Jewish life, by blessing me to realize that every ounce of strength we put into building our joyous, temporary structures must, in effect, be a sensitizing training for the higher purpose of building a world in which everyone eats tomorrow. Gladys has become my precious Sukkot spirit guest, my Ushpiza, whose message I commit to amplify until it is, one day soon, unnecessary in our world.

Discussing the Ushpizin, the mystical text, the Zohar teaches:

One must also gladden the poor, and the portion that would otherwise have been set aside for these Ushpizin guests should go to the poor. For if a person sits in the shadow of faith and invites those guests and does not give their portion to the poor, they all remain distant from him. ...The first of everything must be for one's guests. If one gladdens guests and satisfies them, God rejoices over him. (Zohar, Emor 103a)


So what makes Sukkot so powerful that it compels the attention of heaven and earth? The answer can be discovered within the wisdom of the Ushpizin. The force of the Ushpizin custom, infusing our present with mythic possibility, invites us to consider internalizing spiritual values each day, transforming the sukkah into a safe space for sacred justice and radical welcome, for intentional encounter and deep feelings. In short, the Ushpizin teaches that a sukkah is, after all, an ancient microcosm of the world as it could be, as it must become—a universal shelter of peace.

Rabbi Menachem Creditor

Rabbi Menachem Creditor serves as the spiritual leader of Congregation Netivot Shalom in Berkeley, CA. Named by Newsweek as one of the 50 most influential rabbis in America (2013), he is a published author, musician, teacher and activist who has spent time working in Ghana with American Jewish World Service and in the White House with the PICO Network to amplify a prophetic Jewish voice in the world. His most recent books are Peace in Our Cities: Rabbis Against Gun Violence and Slavery, Freedom, and Everything Between. A frequent speaker on Jewish Leadership and Literacy in communities around the United States and Israel, he serves on many boards, including the Executive Council for the Rabbinical Assembly and the Chancellor's Rabbinic Leadership team for the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.



AJWS is committed to a pluralistic view of Judaism and honors the broadest spectrum of interpretation of our texts and traditions. The statements made and views expressed in this commentary are solely the responsibility of the author.

Inspired by the Jewish commitment to justice, American Jewish World Service works to realize human rights and end poverty in the developing world.

 



 


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